I am interested in the relationship between language and social norms and values. I see language as an immensely powerful tool. It’s not just a means of sharing information; it also shapes what we believe, how we feel, how we act, and even what there is in the world.  These days I am especially interested in the ways technology has changed how we communicate – in some ways for the better, in some ways for the worse.

I have a PhD in philosophy from Cambridge, and undergraduate and master’s degrees in philosophy from Oxford. My work is a combination of philosophy of language (especially speech act theory), ethics, and feminist philosophy. I also like to draw from linguistics, sociology, and law.

My PhD project,  ‘Speech, Sex, and Social Norms’, funded by the Cambridge AHRC Doctoral Training Partnership and supervised by Rae Langton and Clare Chambers, explored different ways norms of gender and sexuality are enforced through speech.

I set up and continue to run the Cambridge Meaning Group, which discusses papers in philosophy of language.


  1. ‘Please Like This Paper’, Philosophy, forthcoming (Joint winner of Royal Institute of Philosophy essay prize, 2020)
  2. ‘Flirting’, in Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Sex (C. Chambers, B.D. Earp and L. Watson, eds.), forthcoming
  3. ‘Your Word Against Mine: The Power of Uptake’, Synthese, forthcoming
  4. ‘Shaming, Blaming, and Responsibility’, Journal of Moral Philosophy, 2021
  5. ‘Reading is Fundamental’ (about the act of ‘throwing shade’), in RuPaul’s Drag Race and Philosophy, Open Court, 2019

Work in Progress

  1. ‘Cat-Calling and Compliments’, R&R
  2. ‘The Language of Flirting’, in review
  3. ‘Collaborative Speech’, in review
  4. ‘Policing Speech’, in review
  5. Review of An Intersectional Feminist Theory of Moral Responsibility (Ciurria) for Journal of Moral Philosophy, in progress
  6. ‘Language in Social Construction’ (with Rae Langton), for Oxford Handbook of Social Ontology , in progress